There is a lot written about Iboga. We made a selection of the literature on it.


Iboga: The Visionary Root of African Shamanism – Vincent Ravalec, Mallendi, Agnes Paicheler

Frank Peter : Ibogaïne Explained

The Ibogaine Story – Paul de Rienzo and Dana Beal

Iboga Visions – Jim Macgregor

Constituents of seeds of Tabernanthe Iboga Baillon. I. Alkaloids

Goutarel, R.; Poisson, J.; Croquelois, G.; Rolland, Y.; Miet, C. (Elsevier, 1974-09) Alkaloids from Apocynaceae II.

Ibogaline, A New Alkaloid From Tabernanthe Iboga Baill

Neuss, Norbert (ACS (American Chemical Society), 1959-12) The total synthesis of dl-ibogamine.

Sallay, Stephen I. (American Chemical Society, 1967-12-06) Extraction Studies of Tabernanthe Iboga and Voacanga Africana.

Jenks, Christopher W. (Taylor and Francis Ltd, 2002) Process for the manufacture of indoles and products obtained thereby.

Taylor, William Irving (U.S. Patent Office, 1959-03-10) Biogenesis of Strychnos, Aspidosperma, and Iboga alkaloids. The structure and reactions of preakuammicine.

Scott, A. I.; Qureshi, A. A. (American Chemical Society, 1969) 13C-NMR. Spectroscopy of Naturally Occurring Substances. XLV. Iboga Alkaloids 1)

Wenkert, Ernest; Cochran, David W.; Gottlieb, Hugo E.; Hagaman, Edward W. (Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1976-11-03) Contributions to the Chemistry of Indole, VII. Syntheses in the Iboga-Series, III. Ibogamine, Ibogaine, and Epiibogamine

Rosenmund, Peter; Haase, Wolfgang H.; Bauer, Juergen; Frische, Rainer (Wiley-VCH (Germany), 1975-06) The psychic effect of ibogaline hydrochloride (alkaloid from Tabernanthe iboga Baill)

Von Schmid, P. B. (Editio Cantor, 1967-04) III. Ibogaine,Tabernanthine, Voacangine-From Eboka To Sananho

Ott, Jonathan (Natural Products Co., Kennewick, WA, 1973)
About the Ibolutein

Goutarel, M.; Janot, M.-M.; Mathys, F.; Prelog, V. (Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1956) Long-QT Syndrome Induced by the Antiaddiction Drug Ibogaine

Hoelen, D. W. M.; Spiering, W.; Valk, G. D. (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2009-01-15) Tabernanthine, ibogaine containing analgesic compositions.

Schneider, Jurg Adolf. (U.S. Patent Office, 1957-12-24) Addiction Treatment Strives for Legitimacy

Vastag, Brian (American Medical Association, 2002-12-25) Derivatves of the ibogaine alkaloids

Janot, Maurice-Marie; Goutarel, Robert (U.S. Patent Office, 1957-11-19) PHARMACODYNAMICS. Difference between the physiological action of ibogaine and that of cocaine. Communication from Mr. Raymond-Hamet, presented by Mr. Paul Portier.

Hamet, Raymond (Masson, Paris, 1940) Alkaloids From Voacanga schweinfurthii var. puberula

Richard, B.; Delaude, C.; Massiot, G.; Le Men-Olivier, L. (ACS Publications, 1983-03) Alkaloids of Pandaca species

Lévy, M. C.; Debray, M. -M.; Le Men-Olivier, L.; Le Men, J. (Elsevier Science Ltd., 1975-02) Alkaloids of Pandaca ochrascens

Panas, J. M.; Richard, B.; Sigaut, C.; Debray, M.-M.; Le Men-Olivier, L.; Le Men, J. (Elsevier, 1974-09) Anti-HIV-1 activity of the Iboga alkaloid congener 18-methoxycoronaridine

SILVA, Edinete M.; CIRNE-SANTOS, Claudio C.; FRUGULHETTI, Izabel C. P. P.; GALVAO-CASTRO, Bernardo; SARAIVA, Elvira M. B.; KUEHNE, Martin E.; BOU-HABIB, Dumith Chequer (Thieme, Stuttgart, ALLEMAGNE, 2004) Previous Page

Solution-Phase Parallel Synthesis of N,6-Disubstituted Isoquinuclidines as Ibogaine Analogs

Levi, M. S.; Khan, M. O. F.; Borne, R. F. (Bentham Science Publishers, 2005) Gas chromatographic determination of ibogaine in biological fluids

Cartoni, G. Paolo; Giarusso, Alberto (Elsevier B.V., 1972-08-23) Alkaloids in Tabernaemontana species, XII. Investigation of the alkaloids from Tabernaemontana olivacea – condylocarpine-N-oxide, a new alkaloid from T. olivacea

Achenbach, Hans; Raffelsberger, Bernd (1980) Alkaloids in Tabernaemontana species, XI. Investigation of the alkaloids from Tabernaemontana quadrangularis – (20R)-20-hydroxyibogamine, a new alkaloid from T. quadrangularis

Achenbach, Hans; Raffelsberger, Bernd (Elsevier Science, 1980) Fatalities after taking ibogaine in addiction treatment could be related to sudden cardiac death caused by autonomic dysfunction

Maas, U.; Strubelt, S. (Elsevier, 2006) Ibogaine: Complex Pharmacokinetics, Concerns for Safety, and Preliminary Efficacy Measures

Mash, Deborah C. (2001) Pharmacokinetic studies on structure-activity relationship of tremor-producing harmala and iboga alkaloids.

Singbartl, G.; Zetler, G.; Schlosser, Lucie (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg I, 1972) Indole alkaloids and terpenoids from Tabernaemontana markgrafiana

Nielsen, Helene B.; Hazell, Alan; Hazell, Rita; Ghia, Felipe; Torssell, Kurt B. G. (Elsevier Ltd., 1994-12) The alkaloids of Peschiera lundii (D. C.) Miers. Isolation and structure elucidation of voacristine pseudoindoxyl and iboxygaine hydroxyindolenine.

Hwang, Bruce; Weisbach, Jerry A.; Douglas, Bryce; Raffauf, Robert F.; Cava, Michael P.; Bessho, Kiyoshi (American Chemical Society, 1969-02) Central effects of voacangine, voacamine, voacamidine, voacorine, and ibogaine

Zetler, G.; Unna, K. R. (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1959-01)
Mechanisms of antiaddictive actions of ibogaine

Glick, STANLEY D.; Maisonneuve, ISABELLE M. (New York Academy of Sciences, 1998-05-30) Synthesis of analogs of ibogaine.

Warthen, John David Jr. (ProQuest UMI Dissertation Publishing, 1966) The actions of 11 indole-alkaloids on the guinea pig heart in vivo and in vitro, compared with those of 2 synthetic azepinoindoles, quinidine and quindonium.

Zetler, G.; Lenschow, E.; Prenger-Berninghoff, W. (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1968-01) Ibogaine and the dopaminergic response to nicotine.

Maisonneuve, I. M.; Mann, G. L.; Deibel, C. R.; Glick, S. D. (Springer-Verlag, 1997-02) The ibogaine medical subculture

Alper, Kenneth R.; Lotsof, Howard S.; Kaplan, Charles D. (Elsevier Sequoia, 2008-01-04) On ibogine, the active ingredient of a plant of the genus Tabernaemontana, originating in the Congo.

Haller, A.; Heckel, Ed (French Academy of Sciences, 1901) 18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula and/or interpeduncular nucleus to decrease morphine self-administration in rats

Glick, Stanley D.; Ramirez, Ruby L.; Livi, Jacklyn M.; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M. (Elsevier B.V., 2006-03-24) Plant derivatives in the treatment of alcohol dependency.

Rezvani, Amir H.; Overstreet, David H.; Perfumi, Marina; Massi, Maurizio (Elsevier, 2003-06) Structurally modified ibogaine analogs exhibit differing affinities for NMDA receptors

Layer, Richard T.; Skolnick, Phil; Bertha, Craig M.; Bandarage, Upul K.; Kuehne, Martin E.; Popik, Piotr (Elsevier Science, 1996-08-08)

Fernandez, Bwiti: Een etnografie van de Godsdienstige Verbeelding in Afrika

Goutarel, Gollnhofer en Sillans, Farmacodynamica en Therapeutische Toepassingen van Iboga en Ibogaine

Psychotherapeutische mogelijkheden van nieuwe Fantasy-doping – Klinische Toxicologie (Naranjo, C. 1969)

A Preliminary Manual for Ibogaine Therapy, by Howard Lotsof and Boaz Wachtel

An Introduction to Ibogaine (Treatment Section), by Nick Sandberg

Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives, by Howard Lotsof

An Ibogaine Treatment Protocol written by Geerte of INTASH, (International Addict Self-Help)

Ibogaine Treatment Notes from Brian Mariano in the Czech Republic

Ibogaine,Tabernanthine, Voacangine-From Eboka To Sananho

Ott, Jonathan (Natural Products Co., Kennewick, WA, 1973) III. Ibogaine,Tabernanthine, Voacangine-From Eboka To Sananho

Ott, Jonathan (Natural Products Co., Kennewick, WA, 1973) Study of iboga (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.).
Delourme-Houde, M. Jean (Elsevier, 1946) The Iboga and Voacanga alkaloids.


Hamet, Raymond (Masson, Paris, 1940-03-16) 18-Methoxycoronaridine, a non-toxic iboga alkaloid congener: effects on morphine and cocaine self-administration and on mesolimbic dopamine release in rats

Glick, S. D.; Kuehne, M. E.; Maisonneuve, I. M.; Bandarage, U. K.; Molinari, H. H. (Elsevier, 1996) Cerebral pharmacokinetics of tremor-producing harmala and iboga alkaloids

Zetler, G.; Singbartl, G.; Schlosser, Lucie (Karger, 1972) The Total Synthesis of Iboga Alkaloids

Buchi, G.; Coffen, D. L; Kocsis, Karoly; Sonnet, P. E.; Ziegler, Frederick (American Chemical Society, 1966) Non-amphetaminic central stimulation by alkaloids from the ibogaine and vobasine series

Bert, Maryse; Marcy, Rene; Quermonne, Marie-Anne; Cotelle, Michel; Koch, Michel (George Thieme, 1988-06) Alkaloids of Tabernaemontana wallichiana

Talapatra, S.K.; Sen Gupta, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Talapatra, B. (National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, 1976)

Pharmacology of Ibogaine and Ibogaine-related Alkaloids, Piotr Popik and Phil Skolnick, (1999).

Luciano, DJ. (1998). Observations on treatment with Ibogaine. (American Journal of Addictions 7, 89-90).

Alper, KR, Lotsof, HS, Frencken, GMN, Luciano, DJ, and Bastiaans, J (1999). Treatment of Acute Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome with Ibogaine. (American Journal of Addictions 8, 234-242).

Luciano DJ, Della Sera, EA, and Jethmal, EG (2000). Neurologic, electroencephalographic and general medical observations in subjects administered ibogaine. (Bulletin of Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies 9, 27-30).

Mash DC, Kovera CA, Pablo J, Tyndale RF, Ervin FD, Williams IC, Singleton EG, Mayor M (2000). Ibogaine: complex pharmacokinetics, concerns for safety, and preliminary efficacy measures. (Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 914:394-401).

Fernandez, J. W., Bwiti: An Ethnography of Religious Imagination in Africa. Princeton University Press (1982)

Glick, S.D. et al., Effects and Aftereffects of Ibogaine on Morphine Self-administration in Rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 195:341-345 (1991)

Cappendijk, S.L.T. et al., Inhibitory Effects of Ibogaine on Cocaine Self-administration in Rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 241:261-265 (1993)

Rezvani, A.H. et al., Attenuation of Alcohol Intake by Ibogaine in Three Strains of Alcohol-preferring Rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 52(2):615-620 (1995)

Alper, K.R. et al., The Ibogaine Medical subculture, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 115: 9-24 (2008)

Jeffrey D. Kamlet, MD, FASAM, DABAM, Fellow, American Society of Addiction Medicine. USA. Dr. Kamlet treated over 400 patients as a clinical study sample on the island of St. Kitts to FDA standards.

J. W. Fernandez. Bwiti: An Ethnography of the Religious Imagination of Africa. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, (1982).

D. F. Dickel; C. L. Holden; R. C. Maxfield; L. E. Paszek and W. I. Taylor. “The alkaloids of Tabernanthe iboga. Part III. Isolation studies.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1958), 80, 123-125.

R. E. Schultes and A. Hofmann. The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens, 2nd ed. C. C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, (1980), 233-240.

C. Naranjo. The Healing Journey. Pantheon Books, Div. Random House, NY, (1973), 174-228.

P. Popik; R. T. Layer and P. Skolnick. “100 Years of ibogaine – neurochemical and pharmacological actions of a putative anti-addictive drug.” Pharmacological Reviews, (1995), 47(2), 235-253. S. G. Sheppard. “A preliminary investigation of ibogaine: case reports and recommendations for further study.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, (1994), 11(4), 379-385.

S. Nadis. “The mystery of ibogaine: can an African psychedelic cure addiction?” Omni, (July 1993), 15(9), 14.

H. S. Lotsof. “Rapid method for interrupting the narcotic addiction syndrome.” United States patent, (1985), 4,499,096; Cocaine and amphetamine: US patent, (1986), 4,587,243; Alcohol: US patent, (1989), 4,857,523; Nicotine: US patent, (1991), 5,026,697; Poly-drug dependency: US patent, (1992), 5,152,994.

Howard Lotsof, personal communication. Also see

M-M. Janot and R. Goutarel. “Derivatives of the ibogaine alkaloids.” United States patent, (November 19, 1957), 2,813,873.

B. M. Trost; S. A. Godleski and J. P. Genet. “A total synthesis of racemic and optically active ibogamine. Utilization and mechanism of a new silver ion assisted palladium catalyzed cyclization.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1978), 100(12), 3930-3931.

A. Hofmann and F. Troxler. “Esters of Indoles.” United States patent, (January 29, 1963), 3,075,992. C. C. Keller. “Neue Studien uber Secale Cornutum, Ergotinin, Cornutin, Spasmotin.” Schweizerische Wochenschrift fur Chemie und Pharmacie, (1896), 34, 65-74.

D. W. Thomas and K. Biemann. “The alkaloids of Voacanga africana.” Lloydia, (1968), 31(1), 1-8.

Schenberg, E. E., de Castro Comis, M. A., Rasmussen Chaves, B. & da Silveira, D. X. (2014). Treating drug dependence with the aid of ibogaine: A retrospective study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(11), 993-1000.

Candida study :

Tang, B. Q., Wang, W. J., Huang, X. J., Li, G. Q., Wang, L., Jiang, R. W., … & Ye, W. C. (2014). Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis. Journal of natural products, 77(8), 1839-1846.


Auler A. Climbing the Holy Mountain of Recovery. Trafford. 2015.

Bast E. Heart Medicine: A True Love Story. Regent Press: Berkeley. 2016.

Sazy L. Bokayé: Bwiti Ceremony. Blurb. 2016.

Academic Articles

Dickinson JD. Iboga Root: Dynamics of Iboga’s African Origins and Modern Medical Use. HerbalGram; American Botanical Council. Spring 2016;109. HerbalGram Online

Mash DC, Ameer B, Prou D, Howes JF, Maillet EL. Oral noribogaine shows high brain uptake and anti-withdrawal effects not associated with place preference in rodents. Journal of Psychopharmacology. April 4, 2016. PubMed